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Briqueterie : Les artisans face au manque de terrains argileux

Les briques rouges font la beauté des maisons des hauts plateaux de Madagascar. Les briquetiers de la capitale font malheureusement part de leur inquiétude à cause de l’urbanisation des rizières

Albert Randrianasolo, alias Bera travaille comme briquetier depuis maintenant une vingtaine d’années. À la fin de la saison de pluie, il se fait engager par son «patron», entre mai et septembre, pour fabriquer des briques. L’artisan se pose cependant des questions sur son avenir parce que depuis quelques années, les fabricants de briques ont du mal à trouver des terrains argileux à louer.

Selon ses explications, la personne qui l’emploie, doit louer une rizière pour avoir à sa disposition de l’argile, la principale matière première. Albert Randrianasolo indique que son patron et lui sont obligés chaque année de chercher une nouvelle rizière parce que les espaces qu’ils ont occupé avant sont désormais devenus des zones de construction. Les artisans briquetiers se disent donc victimes du déplacement des habitations vers les périphéries urbaines. «Toutes les rizières se trouvant au bord des routes principales sont maintenant sur le point d’être remblayées pour servir plus tard de chantiers de construction», se désole-t-il.

Ainsi, il doit investir cette année sur l’une des rares rizières encore disponibles le long de la route «By-pass» à Alasora. Le briquetier explique que ce problème impacte sur son coût de production. Le loyer du terrain argileux s’élève à 15 ariary par brique, tandis que le salaire des employés qui font le moulage s’élève à 20 ariary par unité. Il faut également payer 15 ariary par pièce pour le transport des briques depuis le site de séchage jusqu’à l’endroit prévu pour la cuisson des produits. Là encore, le propriétaire foncier demandera un loyer de 4 ariary/brique, alors que ceux qui s’occuperont du four recevront 5 ariary par unité. L’artisan prévoit par ailleurs 10 ariary de combustibles -bois de chauffe et déchet de charbon de bois- pour cuir une seule brique. «Il faut verser 5 ariary supplémentaires par brique pour les personnes qui s’occupent du four», ajoute-t-il encore. à ce stade, les briques de Bera lui reviennent à 69 ariary par pièce, sans parler de la marge que son employeur entend prélever.

Les acteurs de la filière notent que le frais de transport constitue un élément déterminant dans le calcul du prix du produit. Max Ravelojaona, le camionneur qui travaille le plus souvent avec Bera fait savoir que pour livrer des briques en centre-ville, le client doit débourser au minimum 35 ariary. À noter que chez un grossiste au marché d’Andravoahangy, le prix unitaire de ce matériau s’élève à 130 ariary, frais d’acheminement en sus.

Didier Rambelo

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